Lint Center Announces Patrick M. Hughes, Lieutenant General, U.S. Army, (Retired) Inspiration Scholarship

The Lint Center for National Security Studies is pleased to announce the Patrick M. Hughes, Lieutenant General, U.S. Army, (Retired) Inspiration Scholarship ($500).

The Lint Center is a non-profit charity that focuses on supporting the educational pursuits of the next generation of America’s Counterintelligence (CI) and National Security workers. Inspired by the legacy and leadership of General Hughes, we are enthused to offer a scholarship in his honor.

Lieutenant General Hughes’ career serves as an example to today’s scholars. We hope his life story and our scholarship will embolden the next generation of emerging leaders to follow Lieutenant General Hughes path in the national security career field. His career included military service, federal civilian service, and as a private consultant, federal contracting executive and contractor.

Lieutenant General Patrick M. Hughes, U.S. Army (Retired), was nominated by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the U.S. Congress to serve as Assistant Secretary for Information Analysis, Department Homeland Security (DHS). He served in this position from November 17, 2003 to March 15, 2005. He returned to government service after having been in the private sector leading his own company, PMH Enterprises, LLC, a private consulting firm specializing in intelligence, national security and international relations.

LTG Hughes retired from the U.S. Army on October 1, 1999 after more than 35 years of military service, beginning as an enlisted soldier and combat medic on January 2, 1962.

His last active duty assignment was Director, Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), U.S. Department of Defense, a position that he held for 3 and half years. In addition, he served as the Director of Intelligence (J-2), Joint Staff and DIA; Director of Intelligence (J-2), U.S. Central Command; and Commanding General, U.S. Army Intelligence Agency.

Lieutenant General Hughes led troops at the squad, platoon, detachment, battalion, brigade, and separate Army and Joint Agency level. He served twice in Vietnam, one tour in Korea, and participated in U.S. military operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm in the Middle East, and in Somalia. He also spent time in Bosnia and other strife-torn locales. He has visited 126 nations and was formally trained in the Vietnamese and Korean languages.

His awards and decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal (3 awards), the Silver Star, the Legion of Merit (3 awards), the Bronze Star for Valor (3 awards), the Bronze Star Meritorious Service (2 awards), the Purple Heart, the Army Commendation Medal for Valor, and the award of the Combat Infantryman’s Badge, the Parachute Badge, the Joint Staff Identification Badge, and the Army Staff Badge. He is the recipient of the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal (2 awards), the CIA medallion, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency’s Director’s Medal, recognition from the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, the US Secret Service, the Director’s Award for Distinguished Service from the Executive Office of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy, and many other awards and instances of recognition. He has received numerous awards from foreign nations. He is a member of the Military Intelligence Hall of Fame and the US Army ROTC Hall of Fame.

Lieutenant General Hughes received his B.S. from Montana State University, a M.A. from Central Michigan University, and is a graduate of the School of Advanced Military Studies. He has received honorary doctorates from Montana State University (Business), and the Joint Military Intelligence College (Strategic Intelligence).

He consulted for SYNTEK Technologies, Inc. – a BMT Company, Ltd., SY Coleman, Inc. – an L3 Company, the Central Intelligence Agency, Boeing, Centra Technologies, Inc, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Science Board, General Dynamics, John Hopkins University – Applied Physics Laboratory, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, RAND, SIG, Inc., Silicon Graphics, Strategic Analysis Inc., Booz-Allen Hamilton, SAIC, and other firms.

He has given testimony to several Congressional Committees and has presented his views at Harvard, MIT, the U.S. Special Operations Command, the National War College, the Army War College, the School of Advanced Military Studies, the Joint Military Intelligence College, the Special Operations University, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Foreign Service Institute, Montana State University, The Brookings Institution, The Washington Institute of Foreign Affairs, the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, the World Future Society, RAND, and in many other academic, industry, and technology forums.

He has served on several Defense Science Board Task Forces, on the National Commission to Review the National Reconnaissance Office, on the Laboratory Advisory Committee of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, on the Intelligence Advisory Panel of Sandia National Laboratory, the Counter-Proliferation Board of Advisors at the Applied Physics Laboratory – The John Hopkins University, the Board of Directors of Strategic Analysis, Inc., the National Imagery & Mapping Agency’s “Innovision” office , and the Advisory Board of the National Youth Leadership Forum. He has served as a Futures Mentor for the TRADOC Army Transformation effort and on the Future Concepts Working Group Senior Advisory Group of the U.S. Special Operations Command. He performed work for other elements of the U.S. defense and intelligence communities.

He has served as the President, National Military Intelligence Association (NMIA) and Programs and Awards Officer of the Security Affairs Support Association. He continues to serve on the Board of the OSS Society, and to be an emeritus member of the Defense Intel Alumni Association, and the National Military Intelligence Foundation. He is a member of the Mobile Riverine Force Association and a Life member of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the Disabled American Veterans, and the Vietnam Veterans of America.

In the corporate arena, he was the Corporate Vice President of Intelligence and Counterterrorism at L-3 Communications (now L-3 Technologies, Inc.), from April 2005 until his final retirement in July 2011. His duties were supporting the general needs of the corporation, including acting as Corporate POC for Homeland Security / Homeland Defense and Cyber Operations. He has continued to be a consultant to L-3.

He has been married over 55 years to Karlene K. (Nuber) Hughes. They reside in Florida and Virginia where he continues to write and provide private consulting services.

About the Lint Center:

The Lint Center for National Security Studies, Inc., founded in 2007, is a non-profit IRS 501 (c) (3) organization awards award merit-based scholarships and mentoring programs for students pursuing careers in national service with a particular focus on counterintelligence, military intelligence, national security and cross-cultural studies. The Center is Veteran and minority operated and managed. It awards scholarships semi-annually in both January and July. For more information, please visit

Train, Maintain, Sustain

matthew_b_ridway“Train, Maintain, Sustain” is the unit crest and motto of the 81st Regional Readiness Command of the U.S. Army Reserve. According to its official page, The 81st Regional Support Command “provides essential customer care and services to Soldiers, Civilians and their Families in the Southeast Region and Puerto Rico, enabling supported commanders and leaders to maximize resources and meet global requirements.” Their motto is a poignant reminder that training requires maintenance to be sustainable.

Logistics, Logistics, Logistics

Napoléon once quipped, “An army marches on its stomach.”

It’s a truism that even Alexander the Great, the Macedonian King whose unprecedented military campaigns through Asia and Africa forged one of the largest empires the world has ever seen, knew all too well. A military leader of world renown, Alexander was a gifted strategic planner and one who capitalized on a seemingly obscure element – logistics.

Indeed, Alexander supposedly planned his military campaigns across Asia to coincide with upcoming harvest seasons. His reasoning was simple: a harvest season made fertile supply routes for a hungry army on the march and provided enough substance to feed both his troops and the pack animals that accompanied the army.

Fundamental Truisms

At the core, many truisms and similarly relevant historical adages boil down to confirm fundamentals. There is, after all, a reason they’re called “truisms.”

Attention to seemingly insignificant details can make or break an endeavor. But such cognizance does not just serve the head of the spear or the commanding general of an army. The true value of consequential particulars touches all those involved; once a best practice is identified, it must be learnt down the ranks through training to truly become an operational staple.

Utility of Best Practices

The utility and applicability of training best practices remains at the core of both intelligence and security professional disciplines. These best practices, however, are constantly evolving within a competitive market and what worked yesterday or today, won’t necessarily work as effectively tomorrow.

To stay abreast and ahead of competitors requires continuous self-education. All businesses seek to create differentiators between competitors; similarly, you, as a prospective job applicant, need to find, highlight, and hold your own individual competitive advantage.

Be a Better Fish

Your academic studies set you apart from your peers and illustrate that education matters, qualifications count, and that you likely rank right up there with the most qualified job seekers on the market. Even so, this just makes you a bigger fish in a smaller pond (or a well-qualified candidate in a pool of other well-qualified applicants).

So how, then, do you make your application stand out? It’s a challenge that has many solutions but no definitive and universally applicable answer. Nevertheless, if you reach back and think about the importance of fundamentals, it becomes clear that supplemental training goes a very long way.

Take the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as a case in point. In a ‘frequently asked questions’ segment of its Website, the CIA explains, “The Agency places a high priority on preparing officers for increasing levels of responsibility and leadership over the course of their careers.” Adding later in another section, CIA states, “The world of intelligence is increasingly complex, making continuous learning an imperative.” They’ve made it clear that initial and continuing training is imperative to the operational success of the CIA.

Continuous Learning

The role and utility of training within the intelligence and security community should not be dismissed, ignored, or underappreciated. It’s a vital component for both those currently in the community as well as those seeking to enter it. It can be a stepping-stone for career development, or the differentiating factor of the bigger, brighter, and better fish in the applicant pool.

To that end, we would like to highlight a free training and certification resource that will help build your KSAs (Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities), bolster your resume, and perhaps even be the key indicator of a diligent applicant who knows the values of continuous learning and therefore holds themselves to constantly improving standards.

Defense Security Service

The Defense Security Service (DSS), an agency of the Department of Defense (DoD), under the direction of Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, provides training and education services via its Center for Development of Security Excellence (CDSE).

The CDSE’s mission is to “Provide the DoD with a security center of excellence for the professionalization of the security community and be the premier provider of security education and training for the DoD and industry under the National Industrial Security Program (NISP). The CDSE provides development, delivery, and exchange of security knowledge to ensure a high-performing workforce capable of addressing our Nation’s security challenges.”

The training and certification programs offered by DSS run the gamut of core elements of security disciplines. Course offerings are broken down by specific functional and operational areas and include: Counterintelligence, Cybersecurity, General Security, Industrial Security, Information Security, International Security, Operations Security, Personnel Security, Physical Security, and other areas of interest. Most of the training and certifications that are publicly available are Unclassified.

Training programs and certifications are the gold standard for DoD security professionals in both civil service and contractor fields. The curriculum is rigorous and the material is challenging. Web-based training videos and course materials are readily available online 24-hours a day.

From a user perspective, DSS training courses should not be taken on a whim. After registering for a class and successfully completing a course there is a multiple-choice exam that one is required to complete in order to receive full credit. There is an important caveat to note to prospective participants: if you fail an exam three times, you cannot register again for the same exam, and the passing grade is 75 percent.

Perhaps most importantly though, DSS CDSE training courses and certifications are free of charge. To review training courses that may be of interest and to register, check out:

The goal of taking and successfully completing DSS CDSE courses is to one day qualify for entrance into the Security Professional Education Development Program (SPēD). The goal for DoD is to use this four level program as a future hiring requirement. Future promotions will likely require SPēD certification for DoD security positions so it’s a good idea to get started early.

A Key to Victory

Training is a gift. It is intended to be tool of substance and the foundation on which to build a viable skillset for real world application. To excel in the world of intelligence and security, either as a member of the civil service or a contractor, you need to take advantage of the opportunities that provide the right tools for achieving the mission at hand.

Leaders realize this. They provide opportunities for their employees and team members to garner the knowledge that will enable ultimate victory. Good leaders embrace training, but greater leaders instill continuous learning as both an operational imperative and a strategic value – not because it’s easy, but because they know, as General Matthew B. Ridgway observed, “If an army fails, it is because its leaders have failed; if it succeeds, it is because they have succeeded.”

Facebook Espionage: Why “What’s on Your Mind?” Isn’t Innocuous

“Information is the oxygen of the modern age. It seeps through the walls topped by barbed wire, it wafts across the electrified borders.” -Ronald Reagan

Social-networkFacebook, Twitter, Instagram, Foursquare, Pinterest, LinkedIn. The personal information available to the public about the general public is one thing, however, information available about those in national security positions—military personnel, government officials, other high-ranking persons with access, is a completely different situation and concern.

Twenty or thirty years ago building a comprehensive profile of someone of interest, their likes, age, name, address, contact information, was a job for Human Intelligence personnel  (HUMINT) and investigative experts. In an age when twenty-three of twenty-four major federal agencies are on Facebook (Marks, Nextgov) and nearly 700 million computer users and 250 million active smartphone Facebook users exist (howmanyarethere), public profiles become less social networking and more cyber espionage databanks.

State-Sponsored and Suspicious Security

Collating information mined from social networking sites is a profitable business for data brokers. Brokers create social communication databanks that paint a nuanced picture of a person’s personal and social profile to net coveted advertising dollars. In the same vein, state-sponsored spies and hackers can create virtual profiles of important figures with access, figures whose statuses, network of friends, pictures, and comments could supplement a standard intelligence or economic espionage dossier.

Facebook Statuses, Twitter updates, or any number of other seemingly innocuous musings, that relay either the timing, location, or the nature of a certain user are extremely revealing and continue to bear greater scrutiny by security and privacy experts. Often, devices with geo-location capabilities signal the area or city of a user on tagged posts or statuses. This operational security hole has become so prevalent that the US Army has released guides on how to protect against this sort of breach.

BlackhatThe operational security breaches are further intensified with Facebook’s “Timeline” option, where the actions of each user are organized down to the month that the action occurred. To this end, state-sponsored espionage efforts may result in clear pictures of organizational structures within businesses, associates of national security personnel, and ways to infiltrate or blackmail important users or networks.

The so-what point of the ability to develop profiles via social networks is layered within the context of other telling personal information that a state sponsored entity, general malefactor, or busy-body, may already know. For example, certain career or job fairs, require a stated level of security clearance to be out in the open, readily visible for those in attendance. Being able to connect a security clearance, regardless of the level, with other identifying personal information derived easily from social networks and network applications, from hobbies to network connections, to place of residence, puts that individual, their family and friends, their organization, contacts within that organization, and the entire affiliated mission at a level of risk. There is not a 100% probability of getting approached by hostile HUMINT operatives if the information is out, but this increases the possibility.

Security Not Applicable

The controversy surrounding Facebook’s privacy is not new, and Facebook has implemented numerous privacy measures to combat those weaknesses. However, the wave of for-pay and free applications that users send each other opens up new security holes for both Facebook users and their web of friends. These applications often ask for detailed information that would make for a telling personal profile of the user. Further, these applications not only ask for the requested users information, but also after allowed into that users network, are able to mine information from their friends’ profiles and friends of friends. While Facebook has many technical implementations in place to prevent direct information mining, these applications also allow a backdoor route for data gathering companies, like Google, to collect a user’s information.

Cyber Awareness

The dangers of social networking are ever-present for those who have information to secure. Social networking casts a large shadow and a wide net, one that can haunt irreparably, and now, has seemingly endless breaches: from the known fissures in smartphone security to third-party applications as hidden data-mines to the nature and location of statuses double-crossing their users.

Net security is being aware of what you put on the web. If you are the senior dispatcher for city waste management, you probably are not at a high risk of your data being hunted. However, if you are the calendar scheduler of the President of the United States, you are probably at a high risk of hostile HUMINT operatives attempting to get your information. The game is probability and possibility. We are all targets, the scope is different based on our jobs, actions, and risk.

*Disclaimer: The opinions expressed by the Lint Center Bloggers and those providing comments are theirs alone, and do not reflect the opinions of the Lint Center for National Security Studies, Inc. or any employee thereof. The Lint Center for National Security Studies, Inc. is not responsible for the accuracy of any of the information supplied by the Lint Center Bloggers.

About the Authors:

Brittany Minder received her BA in International Relations from Stanford University and she serves as the Lint Center’s Public & External Affairs Associate.

Tim Coleman serves as the Center’s Director of Communications.


  1. Marks, Joseph. “All major federal agencies now using Twitter and Youtube.”
  2. HowManyAreThere?
  3. image Source:
  4. Image Source: Wikimedia,